Lab members


The Diademed Sifaka

Study Site: Tsinjoarivo

Tsinjoarivo's Biodiversity



Peer-Reviewed Publications:

63. Rahalinarivo V*, Rakotomanana HF, Randrianasy J, Ranaivoarisoa JF, Ramorasata B, Raharison JL, Irwin MT (2023) Activity budgets and seasonal activity shifts in sympatric lemurs: Increased lean season effort in a cathemeral frugivore contrasts with energy conservation in a diurnal folivore. American Journal of Primatology. DOI: 10.1002/ajp.23556

62. Eppley T. M., Hoeks S., Chapman C. A., Ganzhorn J. U., Hall K., Owen M. A., ..., Irwin MT, …, Santini L. (2022). Factors influencing terrestriality in primates of the Americas and Madagascar. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(42):e2121105119.

61. Asangba AE, Mugisha L, Rukundo J, Lewis RJ, Halajian A, Cortés-Ortiz L, Junge RE, Irwin MT, Karlson J, Perkin A, Watsa ME, Erkenswick G, Bales K, Patton DL, Jasinska AJ, Fernandez-Duque E, Leigh SR, Stumpf RM (2022) Large comparative analyses of primate body site microbiomes indicate that the oral microbiome is unique among all body sites and conserved among non-human primates. Microbiology Spectrum 10(3):e01643-21. DOI: 10.1128/spectrum.01643-21

60. Tapanes E*, Kamilar JM, Nukala M, Irwin MT, Bradley BJ (2023) Melanism in a wild sifaka population: Darker where cold and fragmented. International Journal of Primatology 44(1):74-93. DOI: 10.1007/s10764-022-00323-w 

59. Tapanes E, Jacobs R, Harryman I, Louis Jr EE, Irwin MT, Kamilar JM, Bradley BJ (2022) Hair phenotype diversity across Indriidae lemurs. American Journal of Biological Anthropology 178(2):257-272. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24508 

58. Heffernan KS*, Samonds KE, Godfrey LR, Raharison JL, Ranaivoarisoa JF, Irwin MT (2022) Diademed sifakas (Propithecus diadema) in intact and degraded forest habitat at Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar, show high reproductive success and no evidence that dental senescence or rainfall affects reproductive output. Folia Primatologica.

57. Amato KR, Chaves OM, Mallott EK, Eppley TM, Abreu F, Baden A, Barnett A, Bicca-Marques JC, Boyle S, Campbell CJ, Chapman C, De la Fuente MF, Fan P, Fashing PJ, Felton A, Fruth B, Fortes V, Grueter CG, Hohman G, Irwin M, Matthews JK, Mekonnen A, Melin AD, Morgan DB, Ostner J, Nguyen N, Piel AK, Pinacho-Guendulain B, Quintino-Arêdes EP, Razanaparany PT, Schiel N, Sanz CM, Schuelke O, Shanee S, Souto A, Souza-Alves JP, Stewart F, Stewart KM, Stone A, Sun B, Tecot S, Vogel E, Wich S, Zeng Y (2021) Fermented food consumption in wild nonhuman primates and its ecological drivers. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 175(3):513-530.

56. Irwin MT, Raharison JL (2021) Interpreting small-scale patterns of ranging by primates: What does it mean, and why does it matter? In: GPS and GIS for Primatologists: A Practical Guide (F Dolins, C. Shaffer, J. Hickey, L. Porter & N. Nibbelink, eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

55. Thurau EG*, Irwin MT (2021) Condensed tannins in the diet of folivorous diademed sifakas and the gap between crude and available protein. American Journal of Primatology e23239. DOI: 10.1002/ajp.23239.  (pdf)

54. Spencer LA*, Irwin MT (2020) Cryptosporidium and Giardia prevalence amongst lemurs, humans, domestic animals and black rats in Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar. Heliyon 6(11):e05604 (open access)

53. Morelli TL, Smith AB, Mancini AN, Balko EA, Borgerson C, Dolch R, Farris Z, Federman S, Golden CD, Holmes S, Irwin M, Jacobs RL, Johnson S, King T, Lehman S, Louis, Jr. EE, Murphy A, Randriahaingo HNT, Randrianarimanana HLL, Ratsimbazafy J, Razafindratsima OH, Baden AL (2020) The fate of Madagascar's rainforest habitat. Nature Climate Change 10:89-96. (pdf)

52. Rasolonjatovo SM*, Irwin MT (2020) Exploring social dominance in wild diademed sifakas (Propithecus diadema): Females are dominant, but it's subtle and the benefits aren't clear. Folia Primatologica. DOI: 10.1159/000503345 (pdf)

51. Rijamanalina HG*, Vololontsoa CT*, Thurau EG*, Hamrick AM*, Rahajanirina AN, Ranaivoarisoa JF, Randrianasy J, Irwin MT (2019/20) Observation of Fission-Fusion Dynamics in Diademed Sifakas (Propithecus diadema) at Tsinjoarivo, eastern Madagascar. Lemur News 22:76-81. (pdf)

50. Irwin MT, Samonds KE, Raharison JL, Junge RE, Mahefarisoa KL, Rasambainarivo F, Godfrey LR, Glander KE (2019) Morphometric signals of population decline in diademed sifakas occupying degraded rainforest habitat in Madagascar. Scientific Reports. DOI:10.1038/s41598-019-45426-2 (pdf)

49.Edwards RA, […60 authors…], Irwin MT, […54 authors…], Dutilh BE (2019) Global phylogeography and ancient evolution of the widespread human gut virus crAssphage. Nature Microbiology 4, 1727–1736. DOI:10.1038/s41564-019-0494-6

48. Samonds KE, Crowley BE, Rasolofomanana TRN, Andriambelomanana MC, Andrianavalona TH, Ramihangihajason TN, Rakotozandry RB, Nomenjanahary ZB, Irwin MT, Wells NA, Godfrey LR (2019) A new late Pleistocene subfossil site (Tsaramody, Sambaina basin, central Madagascar) with implications for the chronology of habitat and megafaunal community change on Madagascar’s central plateau. Journal of Quaternary Science. DOI:10.1002/jqs.3096 (pdf)

47.Tecot SR#, Irwin MT#, Raharison JL (2019) Faecal glucocorticoid metabolite profiles in diademed sifakas increase during seasonal fruit scarcity with interactive effects of age/sex class and habitat degradation. Conservation Physiology 7(1):coz001. DOI:10.1093/conphys/coz001 (#co-first authors) (link)

46. Jacobs RL, Veilleux CC, Louis Jr. EE, Herrera J, Hiramatsu C, Frankel DC, Irwin MT, Melin AD, Bradley BJ (2019) Less is more: Lemurs (Eulemur spp.) may benefit from loss of trichromatic vision. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 73:22 DOI: 10.1007/s00265-018-2629-9 (pdf)

45. Meador LR, Godfrey LR, Rakotondramavo J-C, Ranivoharimanana L, Zamora A, Sutherland MR, Irwin MT (2017) Cryptoprocta spelea: What did it eat and how do we know? Journal of Mammalian Evolution 26:237-251. (pdf)

44. Rakotomalala JE*, Rakotondravony D, Rakotondraparany F, Raharison JL, Irwin MT (2017) Influence des caractéristiques forestières et des perturbations anthropogénigues sur la distribution des lémuriens de la forêt classée d’Ankadivory (Tsinjoarivo-Ambatolampy). Malagasy Nature 12:16-31. (pdf)

43. Kistler L, Johnson SM, Irwin MT, Louis EE, Ratan A, Perry GH (2017) A massively parallel strategy for STR marker development, capture and genotyping. Nucleic Acids Research. DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkx574 (pdf)

42. Jacobs RL, MacFie TS, Spriggs AN, Baden AL, Morelli TL, Irwin MT, Lawler RR, Pastorini J, Mayor M, Lei R, Culligan R, Hawkins MTR, Kappeler PM, Wright PC, Louis Jr. EE, Mundy NI, Bradley BJ (2017) Novel opsin gene variation in large-bodied, diurnal lemurs. Biology Letters 13:20170050. DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2017.0050 (pdf)

41. Kappeler PM, Cuozzo FP, Fichtel C, Ganzhorn JU, Gursky-Doyen S, Irwin MT, Ichino S, Lawler R, Nekaris KA, Ramanamanjato J-B, Radespiel U, Sauther ML, Wright PC, Zimmerman E (2017) Long-term field studies of lemurs, lorises and tarsiers. Journal of Mammalogy 98:661-669. (pdf)

40. Irwin MT, Raharison JL, Junge RE, Chapman CA, Rothman JM (2017) Minerals in the foods and diet of diademed sifakas: Are they nutritional challenges? American Journal of Primatology. DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22623 (featured article) (pdf)

39. Miller RT*, Raharison JL, Irwin MT (2017) Competition for dead trees between humans and aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) in central eastern Madagascar. Primates 58:367-375. (pdf)

38. Ganzhorn J, Arrigo-Nelson S, Carrai V, Chalise M, Donati G, Dröscher I, Eppley T, Irwin M, Koch F, Koenig A, Kowalewski M, Mowry C, Patel E, Pichon C, Ralison J, Reisdorff C, Simmen B, Stalenberg E, Starrs D, Terboven J, Wright P, Foley W (2017) The importance of protein in leaf selection of folivorous primates. American Journal of Primatology. DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22550. (pdf)

37. Jacobs RL, Spriggs A, MacFie TS, Baden AL, Irwin MT, Wright PC, Louis Jr. EE, Lawler RR, Mundy NI, Bradley BJ (2016) Primate genotyping via High Resolution Melt Analysis (HRMA): Rapid and reliable identification of color vision status in wild lemurs. Primates 57:541-547. (pdf)

36. Irwin MT (2016) Habitat change: Loss, fragmentation and degradation. In: An Introduction to Primate Conservation (Wich S, and Marshall A, eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. (link)

35. Irwin MT, Raharison JL, Raubenheimer D, Chapman CA, Rothman JM (2015) The nutritional geometry of resource scarcity: Effects of lean seasons and habitats on nutrient intakes and balancing in a wild sifaka. Plos One 10(6):e0128046. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0128046. (pdf)

34. Yildirim S, Yeoman CJ, Janga, SC, Thomas SM, Ho M, Leigh SR, Primate Microbiome Consortium, White BA, Wilson BA, Stumpf RM (2014) Primate vaginal microbiomes exhibit species specificity without universal Lactobacillus dominance. International Society for Microbial Ecology Journal 8:2431-2444. doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.90 (pdf)

33. Schwitzer C, Mittermeier RA, Johnson SE, Donati G, Irwin M, Peacock H, Ratsimbazafy J, Razafindramanana J, Louis Jr. EE, Chikhi L, Colquhoun IC, Tinsman J, Dolch R, LaFleur M, Nash S, Patel E, Randrianambinina B, Rasolofoharivelo T, Wright PC (2014) Averting lemur extinctions amid Madagascar’s political crisis. Science 343:842-843. (pdf)

32. Pontzer H, Raichlen DA, Gordon AD, Schroepfer-Walker KK, Hare BA, O’Neill MC, Muldoon KM, Dunsworth HM, Wood BM, Isler K, Burkart J, Irwin M, Shumaker RW, Lonsdorf EV, Ross SR (2014) Primate energy expenditure and life history. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 111:1433-1437. (pdf)

31. Irwin MT, Raharison JL, Raubenheimer D, Chapman C, Rothman J (2014) Nutritional correlates of the “lean season”: Effects of seasonality and frugivory on the nutritional ecology of diademed sifakas. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 153:78-91. (pdf)

30. Crowley BE, Blanco MB, Arrigo-Nelson SJ, Irwin MT (2013) Stable isotopes document resource partitioning and effects of forest disturbance on sympatric cheirogaleid lemurs. Naturwissenschaften 100:943-956. (pdf)

29. Samonds KE, Godfrey LR, Ali JR, Goodman SM, Vences M, Sutherland MR, Irwin MT, Krause DW (2013) Imperfect isolation: Factors and filters shaping Madagascar’s extant vertebrate fauna. PLoS ONE 8(4):e62086. (pdf)

28. Godfrey LR, Schwartz GT, Jungers WL, Catlett KK, Samonds KE, King SJ, Muldoon KM, Irwin MT, Burney DA (2013) Life history variation in Madagascar’s giant extinct lemurs. In: Leaping Ahead: Advances in Prosimian Biology (J. Masters, M. Gamba & F. Genin, eds.). New York: Springer. pp. 387-396. (pdf)

27. Ratsimbazafy HJ, Arrigo-Nelson SJ, Dollar LJ, Feistner ATC, Holmes CM, Irwin MT, Johnson SE, Stevens NJ, Wright PC (2013) Conservation of prosimians in Madagascar: A view from the great red island. In: Leaping Ahead: Advances in Prosimian Biology (J. Masters, M. Gamba & F. Genin, eds.). New York: Springer, pp. 51-59. (pdf)

26. Samonds KE, Godfrey LR, Ali JR, Goodman SM, Vences M, Sutherland MR, Irwin MT, Krause DW (2012) Spatial and temporal arrival patterns of Madagascar's vertebrate fauna explained by distance, ocean currents, and ancestor type. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 109:5352-5357. (pdf)

25. Crowley BE, Thorén S, Rasoazanabary E, Barrett MA, Zohdy S, Blanco MB, McGoogan KC, Arrigo-Nelson SJ, Irwin MT, Vogel ER, Wright PC, Radespiel U, Godfrey LR, Koch PL, Dominy NJ (2011) Geographic isotopic variation among mouse lemur (Microcebus) populations. Journal of Biogeography 38:2106-2121. (pdf)

24. Groeneveld LF, Blanco MB, Raharison JL, Rahalinarivo V, Rasolarison RM, Kappeler PM, Godfrey LR, Irwin MT (2010) MtDNA and nDNA corroborate existence of sympatric dwarf lemur species at Tsinjoarivo, eastern Madagascar. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 55:833-845. (pdf)

23. Crowley BE, Godfrey LR, Irwin MT (2011) A glance to the past: Subfossils, succulents and species loss in southern Madagascar. American Journal of Primatology 73:25-37. (pdf)

22. Irwin MT, Junge RE, Raharison JL, Samonds KE (2010) Variation in physiological health of Diademed Sifakas across intact and fragmented forest at Tsinjoarivo, eastern Madagascar. American Journal of Primatology 72:1013-1025 (featured article). (pdf)

21. Irwin MT, Wright PC, Birkinshaw C, Fisher B, Gardner CJ, Glos J, Goodman SM, Loiselle P, Rabeson P, Raharison JL, Raherilalao MJ, Rakotondravony D, Raselimanana A, Ratsimbazafy J, Sparks J, Wilmé L, Ganzhorn JU (2010) Patterns of species change in anthropogenically disturbed forests of Madagascar. Biological Conservation 143:2351-2362. (pdf)

20. Samonds KE, Zalmout I, Irwin MT, Krause DW, Rogers RR, Raharivony LL (2009) Eotheroides lambondrano, new middle Eocene seacow (Mammalia, Sirenia) from the Mahajanga basin, northwestern Madagascar. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29:1233-1243. (pdf)

19. Irwin MT, Raharison JL (2009) A review of the endoparasites of the lemurs of Madagascar. Malagasy Nature 2:66-93. (pdf)

18. Irwin MT, Raharison JL, Wright PC (2009) Spatial and temporal variability in predation on rainforest primates: Do forest fragmentation and predation act synergistically? Animal Conservation 12:220-230. (pdf)

17. Blanco MB, Godfrey LR, Rakotondratsima M, Rahalinarivo V, Samonds KE, Raharison JL, Irwin MT (2009) Discovery of sympatric dwarf lemur species in the high-altitude rainforest of Tsinjoarivo, eastern Madagascar: Implications for biogeography and conservation. Folia Primatologica 80:1-17. (pdf)

16. Wright PC, Johnson SE, Irwin MT, Jacobs R, Schlichting PE, Lehman SM, Louis EE, Arrigo-Nelson SJ, Raharison JL, Rafalirarison RR, Razafindratsita V, Ratsimbazafy J, Ratelolahy FJ, Dolch R, Tan C (2008) The crisis of the critically endangered greater bamboo lemur (Prolemur simus). Primate Conservation 23:5-17. (pdf)

15. Irwin MT (2008) Diademed sifaka (Propithecus diadema) ranging and habitat use in continuous and fragmented forest: Higher density but lower viability in fragments? Biotropica 40(2):231-240. (pdf)

14. Irwin MT (2008) Feeding ecology of diademed sifakas (Propithecus diadema) in forest fragments and continuous forest. International Journal of Primatology 29(1):95-115. (pdf)

13. Johnson SE, Lei R, Martin SK, Irwin MT, Louis EE (2007) Does Eulemur cinereiceps exist? Preliminary evidence from genetics and ground surveys in southeastern Madagascar. American Journal of Primatology 70:382-385. (pdf)

12. Godfrey LR, and Irwin MT (2007) The evolution of extinction risk: Past and present anthropogenic impacts on the primate communities of Madagascar. Folia Primatologica 78:405-419. (pdf)

11. Godfrey LR, Jungers WL, Schwartz GT, Irwin MT (2007) Ghosts and orphans: Madagascar’s vanishing ecosystems. In: Elwyn L. Simons: A Search For Origins (J.G. Fleagle, C.C. Gilbert, eds.). New York: Springer, pp. 361-395. (pdf)

10. Irwin MT (2007) Living in forest fragments reduces group cohesion in diademed sifakas (Propithecus diadema) in eastern Madagascar, by reducing food patch size. American Journal of Primatology 69:434-447. (pdf)

9. Irwin MT, Raharison JL, Rakotoarimanana H, Razanadrakoto E, Ranaivoson E, Rakotofanala J, and Randrianarimanana C (2007) Diademed sifakas (Propithecus diadema) use olfaction to forage for the inflorescences of subterranean parasitic plants (Balanophoraceae: Langsdorffia sp., and Cytinaceae: Cytinus sp.). American Journal of Primatology 69:471-476. (pdf)

8. Irwin MT (2006) Ecologically enigmatic lemurs: The sifakas of the eastern forests (Propithecus candidus, P. diadema, P. edwardsi, P. perrieri and P. tattersalli) In: Lemurs: Ecology and Adaptation (L. Gould & M. Sauther, eds.). New York: Springer, pp. 305-326. (pdf)

7. Irwin MT, Johnson SE, and Wright PC (2005) The state of lemur conservation in southeastern Madagascar: Population and habitat assessments for diurnal and cathemeral lemurs using surveys, satellite imagery and GIS. Oryx 39(2):204-218. (pdf)

6. Irwin MT, Ravelomanantsoa HV (2004) Illegal rum production threatens health of lemur populations at Tsinjoarivo, eastern central Madagascar: Brief report and request for information.  Lemur News 9:16-17. (pdf)

5. Irwin MT, Samonds KE, Raharison JL, Wright PC (2004) Lemur latrines: Observations of latrine behavior in wild primates and possible ecological significance. Journal of Mammalogy 85(3):420-427. (pdf)

4. Godfrey LR, Samonds KE, Jungers WL, Sutherland MR, and Irwin MT (2004) Ontogenetic correlates of diet in Malagasy lemurs. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 123(3):250-276. (pdf)

3. Irwin MT, Samonds KE (2002) Range extension of the Madagascar Red Owl (Tyto soumagnei) in Madagascar: The case of a rare, widespread species? Ibis 144:680-683. (pdf)

2. Irwin MT, Samonds KE, and Raharison JL (2001) A biological inventory of the lemur community of Réserve Spéciale de Kalambatritra, south-central Madagascar. Lemur News 6:24-28. (pdf)

1. Irwin MT, Smith TM, and Wright PC (2000) Census of three eastern rainforest sites north of Ranomafana National Park: Preliminary results and implications for lemur conservation. Lemur News 5:20-22. (pdf)

Peer-Reviewed Articles Submitted & In Preparation:

Greene LK, Blanco MB, Farmer C, O’Malley M, Gherardi C, Irwin MT (submitted) Dietary and nutritional selections by ecologically diverse lemurs in non-native forests.

Semel BP*, Irwin MT, Raharison JL, Chapman CA, Rothman JM, King RB (in prep.) A nutritional analysis of geophagy in diademed sifakas.

Spencer L*, DuBour A*, Fitzpatrick M*, Raharison JL, Semel B*, Irwin MT (in prep.) Helminth parasites of lemurs at Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar.

Irwin MT, Raharison JL (in prep.) Ecosystem in decay: Factors influencing primate species extinctions in forest fragments of Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar.

Other Publications:

Irwin MT (2021) Review of Studying Primates: How to Design, Conduct and Report Primatological Research by J. M. Setchell. Quarterly Review of Biology 96(3):216-217.

Schwitzer C, Baker-Médard M, Dolch R, Golden C, Irwin M, Johnson S, Patel E, Raharivololona BM, Ratsimbazafy J, Razafindramanana J, Volampeno S (2013) Factors contributing to lemur population decline on a national scale, and proposed immediate and longer-term mitigation actions. In: Lemurs of Madagascar, A Strategy for their Conservation 2013-2016 (Schwitzer C, Mittermeier RA, Davies N, Johnson S, Ratsimbazafy J, Razafindramanana J, Louis Jr. EE, Rajaobelina S, eds.). Bristol, UK: IUCN SSC Primate Specialist Group, Bristol Conservation and Science Foundation, and Conservation International, pp. 34-51. (pdf)

Irwin M, Blanco M, Raharison JL, Samonds K (2013) Anjozorobe-Angavo & Tsinjoarivo. In: (Schwitzer C, Mittermeier RA, Davies N, Johnson S, Ratsimbazafy J, Razafindramanana J, Louis Jr. EE, Rajaobelina S, eds.). Bristol, UK: IUCN SSC Primate Specialist Group, Bristol Conservation and Science Foundation, and Conservation International, pp. 83-85. (pdf)

Irwin MT (2008) In it for the long haul: Impacts of seasonality on primates, primatologists and paleoanthropologists (Review of Seasonality in Primates: Studies of Living and Extinct Human and Non-human Primates by Brockman and van Schaik). American Journal of Primatology 70: 711-714. (pdf)

Irwin MT, Samonds KE, Raharison FJL (2008) Transfert de Gestion: Beanana, Tsinjoarivo. Lemur News 13:7-10. (pdf)

Irwin MT (2004) A broad view of evolution: A symposium in honor of George Williams. Evolutionary Anthropology 13(6):201-202. (pdf)

Irwin MT (2002) The story of May, a courageous dwarf lemur. Newsletter of the International Primate Protection League 29(1):12-14. (pdf)

* denotes student co-author

(updated: May 29, 2020)